Fix High Hardware Interrupts on HP Probook 6540b

A few days back I discovered an “issue” with new installation of Windows XP on HP Probook 6540b laptops (have read reports on the internet about 6440b behaving the same). What I noticed is that after installing all the drivers from the HP website, computer appeared sluggish, especially disk operations, opening task manager was a 5 second task. The solution to this problem was to obtain the latest disk controller drivers from the Intel Website and then install a specific controller type, instead of letting Windows choose automatically. But first, time for this small disclaimer:

The steps below should be attempted after you have backed up your Windows installation and/or relevant documents, please do not attempt this procedure before doing a backup of your system. Double, triple, quadruple check that the problems I am describing here exactly match your hardware, software and symptoms observed. This procedure can damage your operating system, possibly even the hardware, this post comes with no warranties, it is not supported by HP, Intel or any other vendor as far as I know. Also this post is valid at the time of writing, new fixed drivers may appears by the time you are reading this, making it obsolete.

Symptoms and Conditions

  • Sluggish Disk performance
  • Sluggish computer performance when doing disk based operations
  • BIOS is configured to use IDE mode not AHCI mode for SATA disks (you configured for IDE because AHCI was not working)
  • Device Manager is showing a primary IDE channel device configured for PIO mode only – you cannot select UDMA mode
  • Using SysInternals Process Explorer reveals 25% CPU is Hardware Interrupts when accessing disk continuously (on an i5 cpu that is 1 core…spread over all 4 cores). Interrupts usage goes down when disk is idle.
  • Your storage controllers are detected as:
    • “Intel(R) 5 Series/3400 Series Chipset Family 2 port Serial ATA Storage Controller”
    • “Intel(R) 5 Series/3400 Series Chipset Family 4 port Serial ATA Storage Controller”
  • The Storage Controllers detected above have Hardware ID’s:
    • PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_3B2D
    • PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_3B2E

Trials and Errors

As you can see starting from the High Hardware interrupts up to device being put into PIO mode, it is clear that there is some driver issue somewhere. What you can try and watch it fail:

  • Delete disk controller devices then use scan for hardware changes so windows will reinstall drivers. After reboot you will see the problem still exists.
  • Delete disk controller devices then download latest Intel drivers, automatically choose which driver to install. After reboot you will see no changes, same device will be detected, same drivers installed.
  • Reinstall OS re-add drivers one by one, you will have the same problem.

The solution

You need to manually select a device driver to install from the driver package for Intel’s Rapid Storage Technology (I think the former name for these drivers, in general, was Matrix Storage Manager). The problem is that the drivers that come with Windows can only use PIO Mode, and the driver package from Intel does not contain the Hardware ID’s you found above. The drivers do work, to get them to work you have to either:

  1. Manually install drivers selecting a specific device driver to install
  2. Hack the driver files so they include your device ID’s (“hardcore” option, try #1 before you go there 🙂 )

Option 1 – Do a manual driver install

This works mostly after you installed the operating system. here’s what you need to do exactly:

  • Download the driver package
  • Using Device Manager delete storage controllers from the laptop
  • In Device Manager click “Scan for hardware changes“, the New Hardware Wizard appears
  • Choose don’t search Windows Update
  • Next choose “Install from specific location
  • Next choose “Don’t search I will choose driver to install
  • On the next screen click on “have disk” and point it to the location of the extracted driver files. Click OK to close driver selection. List will be populated with a bunch of devices
  • From the devices list select “Intel(R) 5 Series 6 Port SATA AHCI Controller
  • Click OK and correct drivers should install now. If you are asked to reboot, choose OK
  • After the reboot go into the BIOS, change SATA mode to AHCI. If you keep SATA mode to IDE your XP install will BSOD (the reason is you added SATA drivers to XP, and the controller talks IDE, if left unconfigured)
  • Now you should see that your devices are installed correctly and you have no more hardware interrupts. Also the Disk Controllers section in Device Manager looks different, fewer devices left there.

Option 2 – Hack the Driver files

This option is useful if you want to make a driver package for an unattended installation or just want to have a set of drivers that will work “out of the box”. What we will do in short is add a few lines of code to the files in the driver package, pointing the Hardware ID’s to the Intel(R) 5 Series 6 Port SATA AHCI Controller” we manually installed with Option 1. Here’s how to do it:

  • Extract drivers to a folder, you should have these files inside among some other txt’s:
    • iaAHCI.cat,iaAHCI.inf,iaStor.cat,iaStor.inf,IaStor.sys,TXTSETUP.OEM
  • Open iaAHCI.inf file for editing and search at the end of the file for the “strings” section. Look for the string “PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_3B2F&CC_0106.DeviceDesc” which matches to the Intel 5 series 6 port controller . As you can see after the DEV_ follows “3B2F”, pretty similar to our Hardware ID’s:
    • PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_3B2D
    • PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_3B2E
  • Before the DEV_3B2F line create 2 new lines where you duplicate the DEV_3B2F line, BUT you replace 3B2F with the last 4 characters from the other device ID’s (one line will have 3B2D the other 3B2E). The point is to have the Hardware ID’s of your controller point to the correct driver name.
  • Now we have to track any place in the document where “3B2F” appears and add the same text for Hardware ID’s 3B2F and 3B2E. The section you are looking for to add lines are in “[INTEL_HDC.ntx86]“, there is a line containing 3b2f, add 1 line for each Hardware ID.
  • Save iaAHCI.inf and close it
  • Update Disk Controller drivers by pointing Windows hardware wizard to your modifed .inf file

With this inf file Windows should be able to install the driver it needs without you having to select which driver to install from the list. The logic is that now Windows knows where to find the correct drivers, because the Hacked Intel Driver contains the device ID’s Windows is looking for.

Option 2+, unattended installs

This next section is about changing the TXTSETUP.OEM so you can do unattended installations using this hacked INF file. You can follow the Intel guide to injecting drivers for “F6 Install”, but you need to change the TXTSETUP.OEM file that comes with this package. Do following:

  • From the driver package Open TXTSETUP.OEM for editing.
  • In the iaAHCI.inf section look for the “Intel(R) 5 Series 6 Port SATA AHCI Controller”. To the left of that string is the text “iaAHCI_5_1”.
  • Do a search for the string “iaAHCI_5_1” in the document, you should find a section called “[HardwareIds.scsi.iaAHCI_5_1]”.
  • When found copy it and the line after it ( looks like “id = “PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_3B2F&CC_0106″,”iaStor””) 2 times. The 2 copies you can change instead of being 3B2F to 3B2D and 3B2E respectively.
  • In the end you should have 3 “hardwareIDs” sections, 1 with 3B2F, the original and the other 2 Hardware ID’s you need.
  • Save and close TXTSETUP.OEM.
  • Follow Intel’s “F6 install” procedure to deploy Windows XP using these modified files (all the files in the package + modded iaAHCI.inf and TXTSETUP.OEM)
  • You must configure BIOS to use AHCI mode, drives will not work with IDE mode (didn’t for me)

Phew, this was a long and “hard” post. I hope the general idea is clear:

For installing from windows just make sure to select the controller I mentioned (the 6 port device) when doing the complete manual install.

For the hacked inf and OEM files double check and triple check the changes you are making. the point is to add the HW ID’s to the INF file, so it will install the drivers the same way as for the Hardware ID ending with 3B2F.

My best guess is that this mess-up is due to some slightly different versions or ID’s being stamped erroneous onto the controllers when they were shipped. I hope this was helpful, please report back any mistakes you notice.

Log Battery and Power Levels using Powershell

This is a let’s say lighter post, I came up while trying to compare battery life of my laptop and some buddies of mine. I wanted to know, how fast my battery depleted using different settings, use profile and power saving modes. Then I did some digging around Microsoft’s MSDN site, and I found some interesting WMI classes, that apparently provide a lot of “power related data”. I also wanted to have a way to log this data, and that’s how I ended up learning how to create a new event-log file and write data to it to use that as a log. So this is what I will try to show: get power related data and write it to the Event-Log.

“Energy” Related WMI Classes

Here are a few interesting classes I stumbled upon. Some of them are only available under Windows7 probably also Vista, but I’m not sure.

  • WmiMonitorBrightness – gives information about monitor brightness. For example these line give the max. “value” and current value of brightness
$MaxBrightness = get-wmiobject -class WmiMonitorBrightness -Namespace root/wmi).level | measure-object -Maximum).maximum
$CrtBrightness = "{0:P0}" -f ((get-wmiobject -class WmiMonitorBrightness -Namespace root/wmi).CurrentBrightness/$MaxBrightness)
  • Win32_PowerPlan – provides information and identifiers about the powerplans defined. In this class ALL powerplans are defined, and just the active plan has an “IsActive” flag attached it, here’s how to get it:
$powerplan = (Get-WmiObject -Class win32_powerplan -Namespace 'root/cimv2/power' | where {$_.IsActive -eq $true}).ElementName
  • Win32_Processor – gets information about the CPU (I was interested in the CPU load for statistical purposes). This one was pretty easy to find, the value was written in plain sight. Take a look:
$cpu = (Get-WmiObject Win32_Processor).LoadPercentage
  • Win32_Battery – Provides information about the battery itself (estimated time, remaining load, power status). Running “Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_Battery | gm” take a closer look at these members:
    • BatteryStatus – this will toggle between ‘1’ meaning on Battery and ‘2’ meaning on AC Power
    • EstimatedRuntime – this will be the number of minutes running on battery, as the OS estimates it, and if you get a very high value (tens of thousands) when you plug the AC Power, it means the battery is charging
    • EstimatedChargeRemaining – percentage-wise representation of battery charge remaining

Powershell + Event-Log “101”

I used this battery and power experiment to learn more about working and writing data to the Event-Log. I wanted to create a new “Event-Log” in Windows (windows 7 as you probably know allows for a lot of application logs) and then write events to it. Then at any point you can export the Event-log to csv. The following creates an Event-Log, with the name “BatteryMonitor” from the Information category (for my uses “Source” was not needed but it is a required parameter:

New-EventLog -Source BattMon -LogName BatteryMonitor -CategoryResourceFile Information

You can also check if an Event-log is created exists you can use this scriptlet (the answer lies in WMI this time, I didn’t find a cmdlet that does it faster):

(get-wmiobject -class "Win32_NTEventlogFile" | where {$_.LogFileName -like 'BatteryMonitor'} | measure-object ).count -eq '1'

Finally here’s how to write to the event-log, a new event. This bit I used in a script to mark the execution of the script in the event-log:

Write-EventLog -LogName BatteryMonitor -Source BattMon -EventID 65533 -Message 'Starting new Execution of BatteryCharge Monitor Script. The script will pump here CSV values. Values are listed in this order, as CSV: PowerPlan,PowStatMsg,ChargeRemMsg,RemTimeMsg,RAM,CPU,CrtBrightness' -EntryType Information -ComputerName $env:computername -ErrorAction:SilentlyContinue

So that is about it, as usual I tried to tie all of these scriptlets into a usable script, you can download it from here.